NEC & OA Market Overview

Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC)

  • Leading cause of death in babies of very low birth weight (VLBW)1
  • Between 4,000 to 7,000 cases/yr in US2,3
  • Annual cost of care in US is $1B (20% of NICU expenditures) 4,5
  • Global NEC market is expected to increase by CAGR of 5.5% by 20236

Osteoarthritis (OA)

  • Most common form of arthritis or joint inflammation7
  • 31M OA patients in US (7% annual increase to 41M by 2030)7
  • Global OA market is expected to increase by CAGR of 6.8% by 20238

The Current Cost of NEC

  • The high cost of treatment, $1B, has already been established but the human cost is even greater
  • The estimated rate of death associated with necrotizing enterocolitis is as high as 40%9
  • Up to half of all infants who develop NEC require surgical treatment10,11
  • Survivors of NEC are at high risk of serious short- and long-term complications, including neurodevelopmental impairment12,13
  • Because the pathophysiology of NEC is not completely understood, current treatments are inadequate and preventative approaches are debatable, though VLBW defines the patient population
  • Current Treatments: Delay onset feeds, Probiotics, Breast Milk, Surgery

The Current Cost of OA

  • The sizeable US patient population (31M), which currently accounts for 37.5% of the global OA market, is predicted to increase to 41M by 203014
  • In 2013, the total national arthritis-attributable medical care costs and earnings losses among adults with arthritis were $303.5B or 1% of the US Gross Domestic Product (GDP)15
  • Joint replacement surgery is among the most expensive conditions to treat Some estimates suggest that over 3M total joint replacements will be performed annually in the US by 203016
  • Despite recent achievements in the knowledge of OA pathogenesis, the treatment is still a challenge17
  • Current Treatments: NSAIDs, Steroid, Hyaluronic acid, Platelet-rich plasma injections (PRP)
  1. Samuels N, van de Graaf R, Been JV, et al. Necrotising enterocolitis and mortality in preterm infants after introduction of
    probiotics: a quasi-experimental study. Sci Rep 2016 Aug 22;6:31643.
  2. Kliegman RM, Farnaroff AA. Necrotizing enterocolitis. N Eng J Med. 1984;310:1093-1103.
  3. Gordon P, Christensen R, Weitkamp JH. Mapping the new world of NEC: review and opinion. EJ Neonatal Res.
  4. Neu J, Walker WA. Necrotizing enterocolitis. N Eng J Med. 2011;364(3):255-264.
  5. Vaidyanathan G, Joel WH, Jael HK, Martin LL, Rechtman DJ. Long term healthcare costs of infants who survived neonatal necrotizing  enterocolitis: a retrospective longitudinal study among infants enrolled in Texas Medicaid. BMC Pediatr. 2013;13:127.
  6. Market Research Future. Necrotising Enterocolitis Market Research Report – Forecast to 2023. September 2018.
    Available at:
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Osteoarthritis. Available at: Accessed
    September 20, 2018.
  8. Market Research Future. Osteoarthritis Market Research Report, Global Forecast Till 2023.. September 2018. Available
    at: Accessed September 17, 2018.
  9. Fitzgibbons SC, Ching Y, Yu D, et al. Mortality of necrotizing enterocolitis expressed by birth weight categories. J
    Pediatr Surg. 2009;44:1072-5.
  10. Guillet R, Stoll BJ, Cotten CM, et al. Association of H2-blocker therapy and higher incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis
    in very low birth weight infants. Pediatrics. 2006;117(2):e137-e142.
  11. Horbar JD, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH, et al. Trends in mortality and morbidity for very low birth weight infants,
    1991-1999. Pediatrics. 2002;110:143-51.
  12. Hintz SR, Kendrick DE, Stoll BJ, et al. Neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants
    after necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatrics. 2005;115:696-703.
  13. Salhab WA, Perlman JM, Silver L, Sue Broyles R. Necrotizing enterocolitis and neurodevelopmental outcome in
    extremely low birth weight infants <1000 g. J Perinatol. 2004;24:534-40.
  14. Persistence Market Research. Global Market Study on Osteoarthritis Treatment. Available at:
  15. Persistence Market Research. Global Market Study on Osteoarthritis Treatment. Available at:
  16. Kurtz S, Ong K, Lau E, Mowat F, Halpern M. Projections of primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty in the United
    States from 2005 to 2030. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2007;89(4):780-5.
  17. Hermann W, Lambova S, Mueller-Ladner U. Current Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 20
  18. Data on file. Plakous Therapeutics. Winston-Salem, NC.

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